WP1 – Specifications

Led by EPFL

Key parameters on the novel concepts of heterojunctions, design of efficient photoelectrodes, development of photocatalytic systems, design of PEC tandem systems and testing protocols are specified with the contribution of all partners at the beginning of the project.
D1.1: Report on specifications for WP2 developments

Specifications on simple and complex photocatalytic composites. The key parameters to target efficient and promising photocatalytic systems are the resulted optical, electronical, surface, structural, morphological properties, and most important the intimate contact between the different material components on each heterostructure composite proposed.

D1.2: Report on specifications for WP3 developments

Specifications for the photoelectrodes. Definition of adequate substrates to maximize conductivity and transparency for the ulterior development of tandem architectures. Accelerated Testing Protocols are defined to assess the stability of the photoelectrodes.

D1.3: Report on specifications for WP4 developments

In the photo-electrochemical approach the faradaic efficiency of ethylene is the most critical parameter for assessing the performance of the new as-prepared catalysts. In the photocatalytic approach the massic CO2 reduction conversion to ethylene, including the quantum yield are the key parameters for assessing the performance of the new as-prepared catalysts.

D1.4: Report on specifications for WP5 developments

Specifications that are required for the efficient integration of components into the final PEC device and to ensure its stability. Specification of the key parameters for optimising and evaluating the tandem PEC device.

WP2 – Advanced concepts for efficient light harvesting and charge carriers separation

Led by CNRS

The main objective of this WP is to develop light harvesting photocatalytic systems for exploitation in direct photocatalytic CO2 to ethylene reactors. The resulted nanomaterials will be in-depth characterized towards the understanding of structure-(photo) activity relationships, and the most promising will be transferred to WP6 for their implementation into flow photoreactors under simulated conditions.
D2.1: Report on active and robust binary SC1-SC2/SC-(MOFs) composites
D2.2: Report on active and robust bi-metallic M1-M2/SC1-SC2or M1-M2/SC-(MOFs) composites
D2.3: Report on the understanding of the physicochemical properties of the as-prepared materials
D2.4: Report on the identification of the optimal synthetic methods, combination and proportions of materials
D2.5: Report on the prediction of the behaviour of the materials from T2.1-2 for theoretical/rational design of composites

WP3 – Optimization of light harvesting and charge carrier separation on photoanode and photocathode

Led by INAM

The main objective of this WP is the development of upscalable efficient metal oxide heterostructured photoanodes and photocathodes for the integrated device targeted in WP4-WP5 and tested in simulated conditions in WP6. Furthermore, detailed understanding of physical-chemical operation mechanisms related to light harvesting and charge separation by different electrical, optical and infrared spectroscopic tools, underpinned by modeling will be essential for the optimized design of photoelectrodes.
D3.1: Report on structural, optical and electronic properties of heterostructured photoanodes and photocathodes
D3.2: Report on the fundamental processes leading to photoanode and photocathode operation
D3.3: Efficient BiVO4 photoanode with a photovoltage of 1 V delivering a photocurrent of 7 mA·cm-2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE in an inner-sphere redox couple with area of 1 cm2
D3.4: Efficient Cu2O photocathode with 1.2 V photovoltage and 12 mA cm-2 photocurrent at 0V vs. RHE with area of 1 cm2

WP4 – Development of solar-driven catalytic systems

Led by EPFL

The activities of WP4 comprise: the develop of efficient catalytic systems with advanced electrocatalysts for overall CO2 reduction to ethylene with the PC systems in WP2 and PEC systems in WP3. The introduction of protective layers on the photocathode and photoanode developed in WP3 to improve their stabilities under catalytic conditions. The development of novel electrocatalysts for catalytic CO2 reduction to ethylene in WP2-WP3 systems. The design of electrocatalysts for anodic water oxidation or organic oxidation for the photoanode.
D4.2: Report on photocathodic reduction of CO2 with the partial current density of 5 mA cm-2 for ethylene production
D4.3: Report on the synthesis of earth abundant water oxidation electrocatalysts and the protocol for deposition on photoanode
D4.4: Report on the optimization of process variables for PEC and catalyst development

WP6 – Test in a simulated environment

Led by ICIQ

The main objective of this WP is the validation of SUN2CHEM photo-assisted CO2 to ethylene processes (photocatalytic from WP2 and tandem cells from WP3-5) in relevant working conditions. The reactors and tandem prototypes will be benchmarked to identify the strength and weaknesses in terms of efficiency, production rates, stability, robustness, etc. The results will be analysed to define optimisation strategies and optimum architectures, along establishing future perspectives for further upscaling and industrial scope.
D6.1: Definition of electrochemical testing protocols for tandem cells
D6.2: Definition of photoelectrochemical testing protocols for tandem cells under simulated sunlight
D6.3: Definition of photochemical testing protocols for PC systems under simulated sunlight
D6.4: Report on tandem cells performance under simulated sunlight irradiation and optimisation roadmap

WP7 – Environmental LCA, LCC, and Social Acceptance

Led by AU

The aim of this work package is to provide support for the sustainable development of energy-rich chemicals production (such as ethylene) from photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic conversion. The focus will be on methodology developments needed to perform both economic and environmental assessment of ethylene production, as well as the examination of the potential level, or lack of, social acceptance for converting sunlight to storable chemical energy.
D7.1: Report on needed data to build model for LCA and LCC
D7.2: LCA and LCC of ethylene production from different PEC configurations, and at different TRL
D7.3: Report on social acceptance study and impacts on energy security

WP8 – Market analysis and roadmap to upscaling

Led by SOL

This WP sets in place processes and tools to ensure that the right foundations will be put in place during the course of the project for the concepts, scientific results, tools and methodologies to become successful commercial applications in the future beyond the scope of the project and when higher TRL levels are reached.
This implies extensive market intelligence activities in order to identify relevant market trends and competitive threats aligning project outputs with the external business environment, requirements and standards. The WP also offers a study on the upscaling of project results towards the TW scale in order to understand the potential of developed innovations and the feasibility of large-scale developments or whether it is more appropriate and relevant to particular market niches and uses. Moreover, the definition of the exploitation strategy will establish the internal structure of the consortium in terms of access and ownership rights to eliminate any source of IP conflicts in future commercial applications as well as viable business models/plans and valuations for taking project results to market.
D8.1: Market assessment
D8.2: Roadmap for upscaling towards TW scale
D8.3: Exploitation plan

WP9 – Communication, dissemination, and networking activities

Led by EQY

This work package focuses on the communication and dissemination of the results, aiming for a strong exploitation after the life of the project. Tailored activities will be planned to specifically reach the right target public. IPR and data management are also treated within this WP to ensure a implementation of the project in accordance with the EU regulations. Last, synergies with other ongoing initiatives and projects are made, with a particular focus on Mission Innovation events.
D9.1: Data Management Plan
D9.2: IPR report
D9.3: Communication and dissemination plan
D9.4: Project website in English
D9.5: Report on networking activities and Mission Innovation challenge

WP10 – Project management

Led by EPFL

The objective of this WP is the overall coordination, the administrative, financial and contractual management of the SUN2CHEM project in order to ensure effective and efficient processes within the project and on the same time minimising (as much as possible) administrative overhead within all activities leading to the smooth realisation of SUN2CHEM´s goals. Activities of the management include the coordination of technical activities and progress monitoring according to the work-plan, timely reporting and providing of other required information to the European Commission, coordination of the delivery of all reports and deliverables, organization of risk management and introduction of preventive actions and the organization of meetings of the General Assembly.
D10.1: Tools for management and information flow
D10.2: Quality plan
D10.3: Project performance report

WP5 – Integration and stability assessment

Led by INSTM

All the most promising components investigated and developed in previous WPs (heterojunction nanomaterials, plasmonic composites, photocathode, photoanode, electrocatalysts) are integrated into a complete PEC device, the stability of the PEC device is assessed, and the deactivation pathways are identified.
D5.3: Report on an integrated flow cell to reduce CO2 with optimal mixing properties