WP1 – Specifications
Led by EPFL
D1.1: Report on specifications for WP2 developments
Specifications on simple and complex photocatalytic composites. The key parameters to target efficient and promising photocatalytic systems are the resulted optical, electronical, surface, structural, morphological properties, and most important the intimate contact between the different material components on each heterostructure composite proposed.
D1.2: Report on specifications for WP3 developments
Specifications for the photoelectrodes. Definition of adequate substrates to maximize conductivity and transparency for the ulterior development of tandem architectures. Accelerated Testing Protocols are defined to assess the stability of the photoelectrodes.
D1.3: Report on specifications for WP4 developments
In the photo-electrochemical approach the faradaic efficiency of ethylene is the most critical parameter for assessing the performance of the new as-prepared catalysts. In the photocatalytic approach the massic CO2 reduction conversion to ethylene, including the quantum yield are the key parameters for assessing the performance of the new as-prepared catalysts.
D1.4: Report on specifications for WP5 developments
Specifications that are required for the efficient integration of components into the final PEC device and to ensure its stability. Specification of the key parameters for optimising and evaluating the tandem PEC device.
WP2 – Advanced concepts for efficient light harvesting and charge carriers separation
Led by CNRS
D2.1: Report on active and robust binary SC1-SC2/SC-(MOFs) composites
D2.2: Report on active and robust bi-metallic M1-M2/SC1-SC2or M1-M2/SC-(MOFs) composites
D2.3: Report on the understanding of the physicochemical properties of the as-prepared materials
For more information, you can download & read the full deliverable 2.3 here.
D2.4: Report on the identification of the optimal synthetic methods, combination and proportions of materials
For more information, you can download & read the full deliverable 2.4 here.
D2.5: Report on the prediction of the behaviour of the materials from T2.1-2 for theoretical/rational design of composites
Application of Axiomatic Design Theory to Type II and Z-scheme type photosynthetic complexes. The upper limits for ethylene production rates for different combinations of semiconductors are identified and quantitative estimates are presented for both concepts. Strategies to enhance the overall production rate are proposed.
For more information, you can download & read the full deliverable 2.5 here.
WP3 – Optimization of light harvesting and charge carrier separation on photoanode and photocathode
Led by INAM
D3.1: Report on structural, optical and electronic properties of heterostructured BiVO4 photoanodes and Cu2O photocathodes
D3.2: Report on the fundamental processes leading to photoanode and photocathode operation
D3.3: Efficient BiVO4 photoanode with a photovoltage of 1 V delivering a photocurrent of 7 mA·cm-2 at 1.23 V vs RHE in an inner sphere redox couple with area of 1 cm2
We have been optimising the synthesis of BiVO4 photoanodes to achieve the targeted photocurrent (7 mA·cm-2 at 1.23 V vs RHE in an inner sphere redox couple). To do this, we have explored different deposition conditions and heterostructuring strategies using different electron selective layers (TiO2 and WO3) and co-catalysts (CoFe-PB). The best performance achieved at M18 is 4.5 mA·cm-2 for a 1 cm2 photoelectrode with an exposed area of 0.2 cm2. To achieve a higher performance, different approaches are under investigation, like the deposition of ultrathin metallic underlayers on top of the FTO substrates.
D3.4: Efficient Cu2O photocathode with 1.2 V photovoltage and 12 mA cm-2 photocurrent at 0V vs. RHE with area of 1 cm2
WP4 – Development of solar-driven catalytic systems
Led by EPFL
D4.1: Report on efficient electrocatalyst for the selective reduction of CO2 to ethylene with faradaic efficiency of more than 70%
We have developed Cu based electrocatalysts, including monometallic Cu derived from different precursors, Cu based bimetallics, Cu based trimetallics as well as molecular compound modified Cu films to achieve efficient electrosynthesis of ethylene from CO2 reduction reaction. The performance of all the catalysts was investigated in an alkaline flow-cell configuration. As a result, we have achieved a best Faradaic efficiency of 72% towards ethylene production on the Cu catalysts by optimizing the local microenvironment.
D4.2: Report on photocathodic reduction of CO2 with the partial current density of 5 mA cm-2 for ethylene production
D4.3: Report on the synthesis of earth abundant water oxidation electrocatalysts and the protocol for deposition on photoanode
D4.4: Report on the optimization of process variables for PEC and catalyst development
WP5 – Integration and stability assessment
Led by INSTM
D5.2: Report on tandem device combining photocathode and photoanode (area 2 cm2) for solar-driven CO2 reduction partial operating current density of less than 53 mA cm-2 and solar-to-ethylene efficiency of less than 4%
D5.3: Report on an integrated flow cell to reduce CO2 with optimal mixing properties
WP6 – Test in a simulated environment
Led by ICIQ
D6.1: Definition of electrochemical testing protocols for tandem cells
D6.2: Definition of photoelectrochemical testing protocols for tandem cells under simulated sunlight
D6.3: Definition of photochemical testing protocols for PC systems under simulated sunlight
D6.4: Report on tandem cells performance under simulated sunlight irradiation and optimisation roadmap
WP7 – Environmental LCA, LCC, and Social Acceptance
Led by AU
D7.1: Report on needed data to build model for LCA and LCC
D7.2: LCA and LCC of ethylene production from different PEC configurations, and at different TRL
D7.3: Report on social acceptance study and impacts on energy security
WP8 – Market analysis and roadmap to upscaling
Led by SOL
This implies extensive market intelligence activities in order to identify relevant market trends and competitive threats aligning project outputs with the external business environment, requirements and standards. The WP also offers a study on the upscaling of project results towards the TW scale in order to understand the potential of developed innovations and the feasibility of large-scale developments or whether it is more appropriate and relevant to particular market niches and uses. Moreover, the definition of the exploitation strategy will establish the internal structure of the consortium in terms of access and ownership rights to eliminate any source of IP conflicts in future commercial applications as well as viable business models/plans and valuations for taking project results to market.
D8.1: Market assessment
D8.2: Roadmap for upscaling towards TW scale
D8.3: Exploitation plan
WP9 – Communication, dissemination, and networking activities
Led by EQY
D9.1: Data Management Plan
D9.2: IPR report
D9.3: Communication and dissemination plan
D9.4: Project website in English
D9.5: Report on networking activities and Mission Innovation challenge
WP10 – Project management
Led by EPFL